It is an undisputable fact that the October socialist revolution in Russia paved the way for the formation of the Communist Party India . Inspired by the revolution so many youngsters in the sub continent through of a revolution which can be capable for over throwing the British imperia him in India. In the early 1920 ‘s Two Hundred mohair “s who inspired by the patriotic atmosphere of the Khilafat movement and non co-operation movements in the early 20”s embarked on a hazardous journey on foot to the land of revolution . They crossed the Afghan –soviet border and Ammo – Darya to enter Soviet Russia . They were led by Shank at –Usmani , Muhammed Akbar , of Haripur, Akbar sha , Akbar Jan etc . A large group of the youth’s wanted to goto Turkey but fell in the hunch of Turkish rebel and they were eventually rescued by the Red Army of the Soviet union . After that the majority to return to India and they were send back, and a minority group accompanied Com.M.N.Roy to Thashkent where Com: Roy was conducting a Communist University for the Toilers of the east
The first batch who returned to India, reached Peshawar on 3rd june 1921 but were caught and interrogated by the British India intelligence officer in charge . Out of the interrogation of returnees the Police come to know about the Muhajir’s who had gone to Thashkent and Moscow . The British police kept a watch for the returnees . After the arrest they were received barberries jail sentences . This is the first ever “Communist Conspiracy “ case. In this case the Crown Vs Mohammed Akbar and two others (Peshawar Conspiracy case – 1922 to 1924) Muhammed Akbar and Bahadur were sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for a conspiracy to over through the crown, the Government. (The same point was made later in the judgment of Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case 1924 and in the Meerat conspiracy case in 1929 to 1933). There had been several peasants uprisings in India in the course of non – co operation movement (1920 to 1922) . This movement was widely spreading all over India and the youth’s , peasants , the workers and all patriots were in an enthusiastic mood in fighting against the British Crown . But the incident on February 1922 at Churi chaura in Ghorakpur District of UP attained a historic celebrity because Gandhiji came to conclusion from his in formations that the non cooperative movement by individual and mass as to be suspended . The congress working committee met at Bardoli on Feb 11 and 12th , 1922 resolved to suspend every other preparatory activity of an abusive nature .
This was a betrayed of the great movement when the tempo was in the accident it created bitter disappointment among the rank and files of the movement and even the intimate collages of Gandhiji . Jawaharlal Nehru repressed his sharp disagreement to Gandhiji from jail . The chauri chura incident was a heroic episode in the first co operation movement it was spontaneous upsurge of the peasants masses. The police implicated more than a thousands persons in the case .The trail began against 225 accused and 172 accused were sentenced to death . Thus 172 brave soldiers of freedom are standing at the foot of gallows, the Indian national Congress called up on the peasantry of India to remain silent and described the Chauri chuara incident and “extreme, barbarians violent ‘” Those who have exhausted there vocabulary in condemning the British Govt and law courts pathetically hopped that an appeal to the High court will saved the life of the 172 pour peasants. But not a finger is raised, not a step taken, to rescue the men from the jaws of death. They are left to the mercy of a merciless enemy. Com:M.N. Roy published a statement regarding the chauri chura incident in the vanguard on March 1923 , an appeal to the working men and working women of India to declare a general strike in India and save the soldiers of freedom . In March 1923 ,the executive committee of the communist international published a statement the “vanguard” on the chauri chura “. In that statement it is pointed out that “the atrocity of this legal murder in unparallel even in the bloody History of the British rule in India and called up on Working men and women and to hold protest meetings and demonstrations condemning the act of imperialist ,butchery and demanding the release of this condemned men”.
Down with imperialism Victory to the workers and peasants of India Long live in international solidarity of the working class. An appeal Was Preferred in the high court .In the appeal in the high court confirmed death sentence on 19 peasants 110 peasants were sentenced to transportation for life.He veteran Indian Socialist leader M.Singaravelu Chettiyar organized two massive meetings in Madras, where the grievances of he workers were this theme of the meetings and where…he announced the establishment of a workers and peasants party. He prepared previously a manifesto in Tamil.The audience was composed of workers and peasants. It was in this meeting the demand for a declaration of the first day of may was made for the first time in India as a proletarian holiday. M.Singaravelu ‘s party was known as “Labour and Kisan Party of Hindustan”.
In 1922 September S. A Dange through “the Socialist” put forward the idea of forming the “Indian Socialist Labour Party”. M.N .Roy also Mooted the idea of Forming a Peoples Party.Another Veteran Socialist leader and poet Gulam Hussain was the editor of “Ïnquilab” from Lahore.Com M.N.Roy asked S.A. Dange to get intouch with Singaravelu of Madras and Gulam Hussain of Lahore and others,and together with them “Prepare for the organization of a new revolutionary mass Party”which entre the struggle with a programe.
Singaravelu and Dange were seriously making an effort to hold a conference in India and to launch an open mass party. Singaravelu invited Dange to come over to Madras in March 1923 to inagruate his party.Singaravelu and his colleagues in madras held the conference at the end of April 1923 and inaugurated the Labour Kissan party of Hindusthan,on the first day of May.The first May Day Celebration ever in India tookplace in India took place In Madras under the labour Kissan Party of M.Singaravellu and the Red Flag was unflured for the first time in India in 1923.A Manifesto to the Labour and kissan Party of Hindussthan for the formation of a political party of their own was also Published.The manifesto attemted to formulate a concrete economic and political ,programe for the national independence or Swaraj movement,Secondly it urged the formation of a legal left wing mass party inside the congress ,thirdly it stressed the necessity of forming a workers and peasants mass organization fighting for the urgent class demands.
The idea of creating a mass forum for the legal political functioning of the communist party evolved through various shapes.At that time four or five communist groups which had arisen in different parts of India ,were functioning in their own way,having no idea of a centre to guide them. But the leaders of the various communist groups were in good contact with each other and had some correspondence too.
The first arrest of the communists began as early as in May 1923 just at the time when peshwar conspiracy case was concluding. These arrests were in fact a continuation of the anti communist repression started by the Peshawar case. The new case is known as the Kanpur Bolshevic conspiracy case in which the charge was “Conspiracy to over throw the king Emperor”.S.A. Dange’s book Gandhi Vs Lenin and on his articles in the socialist were in evidence. At the end the sessions Judge of Canpur sentenced Muzaffir ahammed,Shaukat Urmani,Dange and Natini Guptha to four years rigorous imprisonment each .M. Singaravelu who was arrested in March 1924 and kept in Jail was later released on bail and allowed to remain in house.
At this time the various leaders of the communist groups were thinking of a centre party The first Indian communist conference was held on 26-28 December 1925 at Kanpur in Uttarpradesh . The first conference was held By sathyabhakta , who was not even a member of any of the various recoganised community groups functioning in India . The idea of holding such a conference was first mooted by the leaders of the communist groups particularly by S.A .Dange who was in the jail in connection with the Kanpur Bolschevik conspiracy case . The conference become the instrument of bringing together all the genuine community groups in the country than creating the first central committee of the C.P.I and framing its first constitution.
Chairman of the reception committee for the party formation conference at Kanpur :- Maulana Hasarat mohani.(A poet , AICC member) The first conference was presided over by – M .Singaravelu.(AICC member , Advocate) The first conference held at Kanpur on the 26th day of December 1925 resolved for the establishment and formation of the communist party of India. The resolution says this conference of the Indian communist resolves that a party be formed for the purpose of the emancipation of the workers and peasants of India. This party shall be known as the communist party of India and the ultimate aim of the party shall be the establishment of a republican swaraj of workers and peasants. And the immediate object of party shall be the securing of a living wages to the workers and peasants by means of nationalisation and muncipalisation of public service namely land , mines , factories , houses , telegraphs and telephones and railway and such other public utilities which require public ownership .
Some leaders in the national level, who left the party for various reasons later, said that the CPI was first formed the Thashkent and it was affiliated to the communist international. The central secretariat of the CPI, consisting of com: Ajay ghosh , B T Rendive , P C Joshi , M Basavapunnyaha. Z A. Ahamed , S A.Dango and A K. Gopalan met on 19th –August 1959 clarified the doubt raised by Indonesian communist party and send a letter to them . In the letter it was specifically stated that “ it was in December 1925 that in a meeting of representatives of the various groups of communist in the country held at Kanpur that the communist party of India was formed “ . This letter was signed by V T. Randive .
The conference on 27th of December adopted the constitution of the CPI and elected a 30 member central executive and M .Shingaravelu , the president of the conference to provide on the central executive for the ensuing year . On 28th – December the central executive met in the presidents camp at Kanpur and elected the office bearers .This com : S V . Ghate and J P . Bagerhatta were elected on the general secretaries and Com : Azad sobhani on the vice-president and decided to transfer the central office to Bombay.
In Kerala the party was first formed only in December 1939 . The first meeting was held at a library it Pinarayi in Thalassery Thaluk of Kannur district . The meeting was attended by Com : P . Krishna pillai , E.M.S .Nambuthiripadu , K . Damodharan , P. Narayanan Nair , K.K.warrier , A.K.Gopalan Subramaya sarma , E . P . Gopalan , P.S.Namboothiri , C.H.Kanaran , K.A. Keraleeyan , Thirumumbu , K.P. Gopalan , V.V.Kunjabu Chandrothu kunjiraman nair , M.K.Kelu, Subramanya sinoy , N.E. Belaram Manjuna iha rao , William snelaks , A . V. Kunjambu , K. Kunjiraman ,P.M.Krishnamenon , K. Krishnan nair , Vadauathi Krishnan , Pinarayi Krishnan nair , K.N.Chathukutty , Kongasseri Krishnan etc. The conference was chaired by com : K.P.Gopalan This meeting unanimously resolved to change the congress socialist party as communist party of India ,Kerala fraction . Com P Krishna pillai was elected as the secretary of the Kerala state committee.Com P Krishnapillai had been in close contact with the communist leader of India very earlier to the formation of the party in the state .